General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1948

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1948
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1948

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1948

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This is a series of multilateral trade agreements aimed at eliminating tariffs between Parties and reducing tariffs. When the 23 Geneva countries signed the GATT in 1947 (effective January 1, 1948), it was considered a tentative agreement until the UN agency replaced GATT. When no such institution emerged, GATT was expanded and further developed in several consecutive negotiations.

It then proved to be the most effective means of liberalising world trade and played an important role in the large-scale expansion of world trade in the second half of the 20th century. When GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, 125 countries signed the agreement. It has become a code of conduct governing 90 percent of world trade.

Read more

Colonialism and Postwar Independence 1947

Colonialism and Postwar Independence 1947
Colonialism and Postwar Independence 1947 – Belvedere House in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), India, once served as the official residence of the
viceroys of India. Today it houses the National Library of India.

Colonialism and Postwar Independence 1947

Between 1945 and 1960, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa gained autonomy or complete independence from European colonists.
British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan Helps Start Decolonisation

There was no decolonisation process. In some areas it was peaceful and orderly. In many other regions, independence was achieved only after a protracted revolution. Some new and independent countries received a stable government almost immediately. Others have been dominated by dictators and juntas for decades, or have experienced long-term civil wars. Some European governments have welcomed new relationships with former colonies. Others fought militarily against decolonisation. The process of decolonisation was in line with the new Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States and the early development of the new United Nations. Decolonisation was often influenced by the competition of superpowers and had a clear impact on the development of that competition. It has also changed the pattern of international affairs more generally.

Read more

The Protection of Trademarks 1946

The Protection of Trademarks 1946
The Protection of Trademarks 1946

The Protection of Trademarks 1946

Overview
Congress passed the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq., in 1946. The Act establishes a national trademark registration system and protects the owner of a federally registered mark from the use of similar marks if the use is likely to cause consumer confusion or dilution of a well-known mark.

Eligibility for a Trademark
A trademark must meet two basic characteristics to be eligible for protection: it must be in use in commerce and it must be unique.

Read more