The Civil Rights Cases 1883

The Civil Rights Cases 1883

The Civil Rights Cases 1883
The Civil Rights Cases 1883 image source: prezi.com

The Civil Rights Cases are a group of five lawsuits that were merged in front of the Supreme Court to determine whether the Civil Rights Act of 1875 was constitutional:

United States v. Stanley;

United States v. Ryan;

United States v. Nichols;

United States v. Singleton;

and

Robinson and wife v. Memphis & Charleston R.R. Co.

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The Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
Suey Kee Lung (c. 1912) was one of many Chinese immigrants arrested for illegal entry into America.
The Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was the first major immigration restriction in the United States. Many Americans on the West Coast blamed Chinese laborers for their low incomes and economic woes. Despite the fact that Chinese people made up only.002% of the population, Congress approved the exclusion legislation to appease labor demands and alleviate widespread worries about protecting white “racial purity.”

Chinese Immigration in America

The mid-nineteenth-century Opium Wars between Great Britain and China (1839-42, 1856-60) left China in debt. Floods and droughts forced peasants to abandon their crops, and many fled the nation in search of work. When gold was found in California’s Sacramento Valley in 1848, a massive influx of Chinese immigrants arrived in the United States to participate in the California Gold Rush.

Following a harvest collapse in China in 1852, more than 20,000 Chinese immigrants sought work at San Francisco’s customs house (up from 2,716 the previous year). Violence erupted quickly between white miners and the newcomers, much of it ethnically motivated. California implemented a $3 monthly Foreign Miners Tax in May 1852, targeting Chinese miners, and crime and violence increased.

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The Insanity Defense 1881 – US

The Insanity Defense 1881 – US

The Insanity Defense 1881 - US
Puck magazine commissioned this caricature of Guiteau for its July 13, 1881, cover. – The Insanity Defense 1881 – US

James Garfield (1831–1881), Charles Guiteau (1841–1882), United States v. Guiteau

In 1843, England was the birthplace of the insanity defense as a legal notion. Daniel M’Naghten attempted to murder British Prime Minister David Cameron, whom he claimed was plotting against him. The court acquitted him due to his psychosis, establishing the Mr. M’Naghten Rule.

It requires that a defendant be found not guilty of an offense if, at the time of the offense, his mental illness was severe enough to (1) impair his ability to know or understand the nature or quality of his criminal behavior, and (2) to jeopardize his ability to know or understand the legal or moral wrongfulness of his actions. In the United States, this two-pronged rule established the legal standard for an insanity defense.

After assassinating President James Garfield on July 2, 1881, a jury in the United States had to weigh the destiny of Charles Guiteau. Mr. Guiteau claimed to be an emissary of God when he shot the President throughout his trial.

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Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878

Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878

Victor Hugo (1802–1885)

Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878
Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878

Hugo was a well-known French novelist who was noted not just for his literary works but also for his pivotal role in rallying support for worldwide author rights protection.

Internationally recognized authors were becoming increasingly worried about unauthorised copying of their works in other countries at the time, but existing bilateral copyright treaties were complex and difficult to enforce. They founded the International Literary Association in Paris in 1878, under Hugo’s guidance.

The committee produced a draft text of an international copyright agreement during its 1883 conference in Berne, which Hugo presided over.They urged the Swiss government to hold an international conference, based on the draft, to establish an international copyright convention. Worldwide discussions proceeded in Berne for the next three years, culminating in the signing of the Berne Convention in 1886, which laid the groundwork for international copyright protection.

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Legal Aid Societies 1876 German immigrants

Legal Aid Societies 1876

Legal Aid Societies 1876
Legal Aid Societies 1876

Edward Salomon (1828–1909), Arthur von Briesen (1843–1920)

The Legal Aid Society is a New York City-based 501(c)(3) non-profit legal aid organization. It is the country’s oldest and largest legal assistance organization, having been established in 1876.

Its lawyers defend clients in criminal and civil proceedings, including class actions. The group is supported by official funds as well as individual donations. It is the city’s principal legal services provider and the top beneficiary of financing from the New York City government among regional legal aid organizations.

In 1876, the Legal Aid Society was established in New York to protect the rights of German immigrants who could not afford to employ an attorney. The organization was able to expand its services and involve people from all walks of life thanks to a major grant from the Rockefeller Family in 1890. The New York Legal Aid Society was founded in 1890, and in 1890, it was called. A board of directors oversees the organization. Richard J. Davis was elected to the board of directors on December 2, 2010.

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Admission of Women to the Bar 1873

Admission of Women to the Bar 1873

Admission of Women to the Bar 1873
Myra Bradwell, c. 1870. – Admission of Women to the Bar 1873

Bradwell v. Illinois, Myra Bradwell (1831–1894)

Myra Bradwell, née Myra Colby, was an American lawyer and editor who was engaged in numerous historic lawsuits addressing women’s legal rights. She was born February 12, 1831 in Manchester, Vermont, and died February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois.

Myra Colby was born in Portage, New York, and raised in Schaumburg Township, Illinois, near Elgin, beginning in 1843. She attended schools in Kenosha, Wisconsin, and Elgin, Illinois. She married James B. Bradwell, a law student, in May 1852 and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with him, where they taught and then ran their own private school. They returned to Illinois in 1854, settling in Chicago, where James Bradwell was admitted to the law in 1855. In 1861, he was elected to the Cook County bench, and in 1873, he was elected to the state assembly.

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Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873

Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873

Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873
The Comstock Act, named after moralist Anthony Comstock who is shown here, banned the circulation
of educational materials related to legal birth control – Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873

Anthony Comstock (1844–1915), George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950)

Sending “obscene, vulgar, or lascivious,” “immoral,” or “indecent” books over the mail was made criminal by the Comstock Act of 1873. Selling, giving away, or possessing an obscene book, pamphlet, photograph, sketch, or advertisement became a misdemeanour under the law.

Even if prepared by a physician, the legislation’s scope encompassed writings or documents relating to contraception and abortion. Although the act was formally named An Act for the Suppression of Trade in and Circulation of Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use, it lacked a definition of obscenity.

In reaction to the growth of obscene materials in the 1870s, Congress passed the Comstock Act. The leader of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, Anthony Comstock, had showed members of Congress filthy images and pushed legislators to adopt the bill to prevent juvenile crime and corruption.

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