Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872

Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872

Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872
West Publishing was founded in 1872, and in 1896 moved to the West Publishing Company building that still stands at 50 W Kellogg Blvd.Courtesy Thomson Reuters – Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872

John Briggs West (1852–1922)

West began working as a salesperson for the D.D. Merrill Book Store in Saint Paul, Minnesota, when he was 18 years old. He was neither a lawyer nor a college graduate. The store carried law books among other things, and West learned about frontier attorneys’ discontent with the quality and availability of legal materials. West started his own company as “John B. West, Publisher and Book Seller” in 1872, reprinting legal treatises, publishing legal forms, and providing a much-appreciated index to Minnesota legislation.

In 1899, he unexpectedly departed the West Publishing Company and founded the Keefe-Davidson Law Book Company, making derogatory remarks about the West key-number digest method in the process. However, his new company lost a significant case within a decade and went out of business. He moved to southern California after retiring.

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The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard

The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard University

The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard
The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard – Portrait of Christopher Columbus Langdell by Frederick Porter Vinton, 1892

William Blackstone (1723–1780), Theodore Dwight (1822–1892), Christopher Columbus Langdell (1826–1906)

Harvard Law School (HLS) is Harvard University’s law school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is the oldest continually functioning law school in the United States, as well as one of the most respected in the country, having been founded in 1817.

With only one faculty member, the institution was floundering by 1827. The Dane Professorship of Law was then established by Nathan Dane, a notable graduate of the college, who insisted that it be presented to then-Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. The school was once known as “Dane Law School.” John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, took a post at Harvard in 1829 and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his pupils joining him.

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Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination

Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination 1869

Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination 1869
Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination 1869 -This commemorative print celebrating the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment shows a parade surrounded by images of African Americans enjoying their newly confirmed rights.

In 1870, the United States Constitution was amended to include the 15th Amendment, which intended to safeguard African American men’s voting rights following the Civil War. Despite the amendment, by the late 1870s, discriminatory techniques were being employed to discourage Black Americans, particularly in the South, from exercising their right to vote. Legal impediments at the state and municipal levels were not abolished until the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which made it illegal to deny African Americans their right to vote under the 15th Amendment.

What Is the 15th Amendment?

“The right of citizens of the United Declares to vote shall not be denied or restricted by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or prior condition of servitude,” the 15th Amendment states.

Despite the enactment of the amendment, by the late 1870s, discriminatory techniques were being employed to prohibit Black residents, particularly in the South, from exercising their right to vote. Legal impediments at the state and municipal levels were not illegal until the Voting Rights Act of 1965 if they deprived African Americans their ability to vote under the 15th Amendment.”

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The Fourteenth Amendment 1868

The Fourteenth Amendment 1868

The Fourteenth Amendment 1868
The Fourteenth Amendment 1868 – Jacob M. Howard, the Michigan senator who authored the citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that reversed a portion of the U.S. Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1868, and it granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War, with the phrase “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” encompassing them.

Overall, there are five components to the amendment, four of which originated as distinct bills in 1866 that stagnated in the legislative process before being merged, along with a fifth enforcement element, into a single amendment.

This so-called Reconstruction Amendment made it illegal for states to deprive anybody of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” or to deny anyone within their jurisdiction equal legal protection. The section of the Constitution allocating representation in the House of Representatives based on a formula that counted each slave as three-fifths of a person was repealed by the Thirteenth Amendment, which was replaced by a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment requiring that representatives be “apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the entire number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.”

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Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868

Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868

Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868
Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868 – President Andrew Johnson as painted by Washington Bogart Cooper (1802–1888).

Andrew Johnson (1808–1875)

The United States House of Representatives votes on 11 articles of impeachment against President Andrew Johnson, with nine of them citing Johnson’s dismissal of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, which violated the Tenure of Office Act. President Lyndon B. Johnson became the first president in US history to be impeached after the House vote.

Andrew Johnson, a senator from Tennessee, was the only U.S. senator from a seceding state who stayed loyal to the Union at the commencement of the Civil War in 1861. He was appointed military governor of Tennessee by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862, and he was elected vice president of the United States in 1864.

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The Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 South Carolina congressman Robert B. Elliott delivering his famous speech in favor of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in the House of Representatives on January 6, 1874.

Lyman Trumbull (1813–1896), Andrew Johnson (1808–1875)

“Without difference of race or color, or previous state of slavery or involuntary servitude,” the Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all people born in the United States to be citizens. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill, the 39th United States Congress overrode his veto, and the bill became law. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first civil rights statute in the United States.

Background

Following Abraham Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, President Andrew Johnson took a moderate approach to Reconstruction in the aftermath of the Civil War. Former Confederate states were expected to preserve abolition, vow devotion to the United States, and pay their war debts in order to re-enter the Union.

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The Abolition of Slavery 1865 – Amendment

The Abolition of Slavery 1865 – Amendment

The Abolition of Slavery 1865 - Amendment
The Abolition of Slavery 1865 – Amendment – Building on the Emancipation Proclamation, the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution fully prohibited the institution of slavery.

The 13th Amendment is legally accepted into the United States Constitution after being ratified by three-quarters of the states earlier in the month. It ensures that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude… shall exist within the United States, or any area subject to their authority.”

Before the American Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and other anti-slavery Republican Party leaders wanted to halt slavery from spreading into new territories and states in the American West, not abolish it. Most Southern leaders objected to this program, believing that the emergence of free states would irreversibly tilt the US power structure against them.

The election of Abraham Lincoln as president in November 1860 precipitated the secession of seven Southern states and the foundation of the Confederate States of America. The Civil War broke out shortly after his inauguration in 1861. Four additional slave states in the upper South joined the Confederacy, while four border slave states remained in the Union.

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