Les Termes de la Ley 1527 – John Rastell

Les Termes de la Ley 1527
John Rastell (c. 1475–1536)

Les Termes de la Ley
Les Termes de la Ley

You may need a dictionary to grasp the meaning of an unknown word while reading this book. People can use dictionaries to improve their understanding of a language or a certain subject, and hence their capacity to comprehend concepts and ideas. Today, we take that skill for granted. Consider a world without dictionaries: where would a reader go to learn the meanings of words they’d never heard before?

Expositiones Terminorum Legum Anglorum, afterwards known as Les Termes de la Ley, was originally published in England in 1527 by John Rastell, an English lawyer and author. The dictionary had 208 entries, which were laid down alphabetically in parallel columns, one in Latin and the other in Anglo-Norman Law French. In 1530, a second edition was published with English translations.

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The Alhambra Decree 1492 – Edict of Expulsion

The Alhambra Decree

The Alhambra Decree - The 1889 painting by Emilio Sala (1850–1910) shows Torquemada offering the Edict of Expulsion to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492.
The Alhambra Decree – The 1889 painting by Emilio Sala (1850–1910) shows Torquemada offering the Edict of Expulsion to Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492.

Today, Ferdinand and Isabella are best remembered for commissioning Christopher Columbus to search for a western trade route to the Orient. On August 3, 1492, the Genovese mariner set sail from Spain, but his royal backers had issued the Edict of Expulsion, often known as the Alhambra Decree, demanding “all Jews and Jewesses of whatever age they may be” to either accept baptism and conversion to Christianity or leave the nation.

Throughout the fifteenth century, a fresh wave of anti-Semitism had been simmering. Many Spanish Jews converted to Christianity in order to evade persecution and participate in forbidden activities. The Conversos did well in business and in universities as a group, but their success fostered resentment and fury.

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Book on International Law – Malcolm Shaw – 9th edition – 2021 Release

International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject.

Book on International Law - Malcolm Shaw - 9th edition - 2021 Release
Book on International Law – Malcolm Shaw – 9th edition – 2021 Release

It has long been established as a leading authority in the field, offering an unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour, ensuring understanding and analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Explaining the leading rules, practice and caselaw, this treatise retains and develops the detailed referencing which encourages and assists the reader in further study. This new edition has been fully updated to reflect recent developments.

In particular, it has expanded the treatment of space law and of international economic law, and introduced new sections on cyber operations and cyber warfare, as well as reflecting the Covid-19 crisis.

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Must watch movie for law students – Bridge of Spies film (2015)

Must watch movie for law students – Bridge of Spies film (2015) – This film was based on true story.

Bridge of Spies film (2017)
Bridge of Spies film (2017)

New York lawyer James Donovan, his client Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, and American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers were the key players in a Cold War historical drama.

The Soviet Union arrests US pilot Francis Gary Powers after shooting down his U-2 espionage plane during the Cold War.When Powers is sentenced to ten years in jail, a CIA officer recruits New York lawyer James Donovan (Tom Hanks) to negotiate his release. Donovan boards a flight to Berlin in the hopes of securing the young man’s release through a prisoner swap. If all goes according to plan, the Russians will capture Rudolf Abel (Mark Rylance), the convicted spy whom Donovan represented in court.

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New Apple MacBook Pros with M1 Pro and M1 Max chips

Apple introduced new MacBook Pro notebooks with 14′ (inch – approx. 35 cm) and 16′ (inch – approx. 40 cm) with specially designed chips M1 Pro and M1 Max – as the most powerful chips Apple has ever built. The power of new notebooks is huge and will make the lives of professional creators easier.

Apple MacBook Pro M1 Pro and M1 Max
Apple MacBook Pro M1 Pro and M1 Max

Powering the all-new MacBook Pro, new chips feature up to a 10-core CPU, 32-core GPU, 64GB of unified memory, ProRes acceleration, and industry-leading power efficiency.

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Thomas de Littleton Tenures 1481

Littleton Tenures 1481 – Treatise on Tenures – The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England

Thomas de Littleton (c.1422–1481)

Thomas de Littleton Tenures - Sir Thomas de Littleton authored the first legal textbook, Treatise on Tenures.
Thomas de Littleton Tenures – Sir Thomas de Littleton authored the first legal textbook, Treatise on Tenures.

In the mid-fifteenth century, the printing press ushered in revolutionary transformations in many elements of European culture and society.

The ability to communicate written content, ranging from one-page pamphlets to multivolume volumes, all teeming with knowledge to be spread and gained, lay the foundation for numerous profound breakthroughs that accumulated over the years.

Those revolutionary developments were felt in the legal field as well, albeit there was some initial resistance to textbooks.Long before the printing machine, two of England’s most illustrious jurists penned important legal documents.

The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England, written by Ranulf de Glanville, chief justiciar during Henry II’s reign, was the first text on English law.

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The Joan of Arc Trial 1431

The Joan of Arc Trial 1431

The Trial of Joan of Arc
The Trial of Joan of Arc – Later canonized by the Catholic Church, Joan of Arc—depicted in this 1898 painting from the side altar in the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, Belgium—is one of the best-known victims of religious persecution.

Jeanne d’Arc (1412–1431), Pierre Cauchon (1371–1442), Callixtus III (1378–1458)
Jeanne d’Arc claimed to have received visions of saints when she was twelve years old, encouraging her to help put an end to the horrific Hundred Years’ War that had already been raging for decades between Plantagenet England and Valois France for hereditary control of the latter realm. She began campaigning for a military position when she was sixteen years old. Her leadership on the battlefield is unknown in the historical record, but her dramatic presence helped the French turn the tide of the fight in their favor.

Despite this, a succession of military setbacks led to her capture and trial for heresy in Rouen, France, by an English-supported church led by Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais. Because of her male traits and defiant refusal to answer inquiries, church investigators suspected Joan of being a witch or sorceress during her trial. Despite the lack of evidence, Joan’s brief recollections of her visions and her aversion to wearing women’s clothing — most likely to prevent being raped in prison — were enough to persuade Church officials that she had an immoral nature.

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