Wall Street Regulation 1933

Wall Street Regulation 1933
Wall Street Regulation 1933

Wall Street Regulation 1933

The Glass-Steagall Act was enacted as part of the Banking Act of 1933 by the United States Congress. Senator Carter Glass, a former Treasury Secretary, and Representative Henry Steagall, chair of the House Banking and Currency Committee, co-sponsored the bill, which forbade commercial banks from engaging in investment banking and vice versa.

During the Great Depression, an emergency procedure was implemented to prevent the failure of nearly 5,000 banks. Glass-effectiveness Steagall’s waned over time, and it was largely repealed in 1999. However, a new financial crisis in the twenty-first century has prompted discussions in political and economic circles about renewing the act.

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Hitler’s Rise to Power 1933

Hitler’s Rise to Power 1933
Hitler’s Rise to Power 1933

Hitler’s Rise to Power 1933

Paul von Hindenburg (1847–1934), Adolf Hitler (1889–1945)

Hitler ascended to power in 1933 and established a dictatorship in Germany. How did Hitler’s Nazi party gain power, and how did he remove his opponents?

The weakness of the Weimar republic after WWI

In 1919, Germany became a republic. Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated after losing the First World War. The new arrangement displeased a large number of Germans. They yearned to be back in the Empire. Many individuals thought the ruling social democrats were to responsible for the war’s failure. Nonetheless, from the mid-1920s onwards, things began to improve. The global economic crisis struck in 1930.

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Wiretaps, 1928, Olmstead v. United States

Wiretaps, 1928, Olmstead v. United States
William Howard Taft | Wiretaps, 1928, Olmstead v. United States

Wiretaps, 1928, Olmstead v. United States

The Facts of the Case

Roy Olmstead had been suspected of being a bootlegger. Federal agents planted wiretaps in the basement of Olmstead’s building (where he had an office) and in the streets surrounding his home without judicial clearance. The wiretaps provided evidence that led to Olmstead’s conviction. This case was determined alongside Green v. United States, in which Green and several other defendants were found guilty of conspiracy to violate the National Prohibition Act by importing, possessing, and distributing prohibited liquors based on unlawfully obtained wiretapped communications. McInnis v. United States was also decided in this case.

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The Danger Zone in Tort Law 1926

The Danger Zone in Tort Law 1926
The toppling of a penny scale, similar to the one shown here, prompted a ruling that introduced the concept of foreseeability into tort law, limiting liability to reasonably foreseeable consequences of a negligent act. | The Danger Zone in Tort Law 1926

The Danger Zone in Tort Law 1926

Palsgraf v. Long Island Railroad Co.

Rule

Because it happened to be a wrong, though apparently not one involving the risk of bodily insecurity, with reference to someone else, an act innocent and harmless, at least on the surface, with reference to a plaintiff, does not take on the quality of a tort because it happened to be a wrong, though apparently not one involving the risk of bodily insecurity. In every case, before carelessness can be attributed to a specific conduct, the act must be traced back to a responsibility owed to the person who is complaining, which if followed would have prevented or mitigated the injury. The concepts of negligence and obligation are inextricably linked.

Facts of the Case

Plaintiff is a passenger with a valid ticket. Helen Palsgraf was on the defendant Long Island Railroad Company’s platform. At an adjacent platform, a man carrying a package rushed aboard the car of a running train. A security in the car leaned out to assist him, and a guard on the platform shoved him backwards.

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The United States Code 1926

The United States Code 1926
The United States Code 1926

The United States Code 1926

The United States Code is a multi-volume compilation and codification of the United States’ general and permanent laws. According to subject matter, the volumes are divided into fifty titles. Regulations published by federal agencies, decisions of federal courts, laws adopted by state or municipal governments, and treaties are not included in the Code.

Prior to 1926, researching federal statutory law was extremely difficult. The Revised Statutes of the United States (1875), which contained inaccuracies, contained all federal statutes enacted before 1875. After 1875, laws were published in chronological sequence, without subject matter organization or a cumulative index, in volumes of the United States Statutes at Large. The publishing of the Code was approved by Congress in 1926, bringing together all legal federal laws in one volume organized by topic matter.

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The Scopes “Monkey” Trial 1925

The Scopes “Monkey” Trial 1925
The Scopes “Monkey” Trial 1925

The Scopes “Monkey” Trial 1925

The Tennessee state legislature enacted a measure in March 1925 prohibiting the teaching of evolution in all educational institutions in the state.

The Butler Act sounded the alarm across the country. The ACLU promptly offered to represent any teacher facing charges under the law. John Scopes, a famous high school science teacher, agreed to be the defendant in a law-challenge test case. On May 7, 1925, he was arrested and charged with teaching evolution theory. The defense was led by Clarence Darrow, a highly capable, experienced, and nationally recognized criminal defense attorney, and Arthur Garfield Hays, the ACLU’s General Counsel. They argued that the Tennessee statute was unconstitutional because it made a religious document, the Bible, the standard of truth in a government institution. William Jennings Bryan, a former Secretary of State, presidential contender, and the most well-known conservative Christian advocate in the country, headed the prosecution. His technique was straightforward: he needed to show that John Scopes had broken Tennessee law.

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The Emergency Quota Act 1921

The Emergency Quota Act 1921
Joseph Keppler’s 1882 cartoon “Uncle Sam’s Lodging-House” depicts the tension America was facing as a result of an influx of immigrants from around the world. The nation’s response took the form of restrictive immigration laws and, beginning in 1907, immigration quotas. | The Emergency Quota Act 1921

The Emergency Quota Act 1921

Through a national origins quota, the Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed to enter the United States. According to the 1890 national census, 2% of the total number of persons of each nationality in the United States were eligible for immigration permits. Immigrants from Asia were absolutely excluded.

Literacy Tests and “Asiatic Barred Zone”

The United States Congress passed the first comprehensive immigration statute in 1917. Because of the uncertainty about national security created by World War I, Congress was able to enact this bill, which included numerous key measures that opened the way for the 1924 Act. The 1917 Act imposed a literacy test on immigrants above the age of 16, requiring them to demonstrate basic reading ability in any language.

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