Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 December 1948.
The Genocide Convention was one of the first UN treaties dealing with humanitarian issues. Adopted in 1948 in response to the atrocities committed during World War II, G.A. In Resolution 180 (II) of 21 December 1947, the United Nations acknowledges that “genocide is an international crime with domestic and international responsibility for individuals and nations.” Since then, the treaty has been widely accepted by the international community and ratified by the overwhelming majority of countries.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This is a series of multilateral trade agreements aimed at eliminating tariffs between Parties and reducing tariffs. When the 23 Geneva countries signed the GATT in 1947 (effective January 1, 1948), it was considered a tentative agreement until the UN agency replaced GATT. When no such institution emerged, GATT was expanded and further developed in several consecutive negotiations.
It then proved to be the most effective means of liberalising world trade and played an important role in the large-scale expansion of world trade in the second half of the 20th century. When GATT was replaced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, 125 countries signed the agreement. It has become a code of conduct governing 90 percent of world trade.
Between 1945 and 1960, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa gained autonomy or complete independence from European colonists.
British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan Helps Start Decolonisation
There was no decolonisation process. In some areas it was peaceful and orderly. In many other regions, independence was achieved only after a protracted revolution. Some new and independent countries received a stable government almost immediately. Others have been dominated by dictators and juntas for decades, or have experienced long-term civil wars. Some European governments have welcomed new relationships with former colonies. Others fought militarily against decolonisation. The process of decolonisation was in line with the new Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States and the early development of the new United Nations. Decolonisation was often influenced by the competition of superpowers and had a clear impact on the development of that competition. It has also changed the pattern of international affairs more generally.
Congress passed the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq., in 1946. The Act establishes a national trademark registration system and protects the owner of a federally registered mark from the use of similar marks if the use is likely to cause consumer confusion or dilution of a well-known mark.
Eligibility for a Trademark
A trademark must meet two basic characteristics to be eligible for protection: it must be in use in commerce and it must be unique.
In the United States, rent control refers to laws or ordinances that put price limitations on residential housing rents to serve as a price ceiling. Economists agree that rent regulation reduces the quality and quantity of rental housing units available.
Rent control, in a broader sense, refers to two forms of price controls: “tight price ceilings,” sometimes known as “rent freeze” systems, and “absolute” or “first generation” rent controls, which allow no rent rises at all (rent is typically frozen at the rate existing when the law was enacted).
“Vacancy control,” also known as “strict” or “strong” rent control, in which the rental price can rise during a tenancy but remains regulated between tenancies (a new tenant pays nearly the same rent as the previous tenant), and
“vacancy decontrol,” also known as “tenancy” or “second-generation” rent control, in which the rental price can rise during a tenancy but rents can rise to market rate between tenancies (a new tenant pays nearly the same rent as the previous tenant (new tenants pay market rate rent, but increases are limited as long as they remain).
As of 2019, there are communities in five states (California, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, and Oregon) and the District of Columbia that have some sort of residential rent control (for normal structures, excluding mobile homes). Thirty-seven states prohibit or preclude rent control, whereas eight states enable cities to impose rent control but do not have any cities that have done so.
The Nürnberg trials, commonly known as the Nuremberg trials, were a series of war crimes proceedings held at Nürnberg, Germany, in 1945–46. Former Nazi officials were accused and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The four counts in the indictment were: (1) crimes against peace (i.e., planning, initiating, and waging wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements), (2) crimes against humanity (i.e., exterminations, deportations, and genocide), (3) war crimes (i.e., violations of the laws of war), and (4) “a common plan or conspiracy to commit” the crimes listed in the first three counts.
The London Agreement on August 8, 1945 gave the International Military Tribunal the authority to conduct these cases. On that date, representatives from the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France’s provisional government signed an agreement that included a charter for an international military tribunal to try major Axis war criminals whose crimes were not limited to a specific geographic location. The contents of this agreement were later ratified by 19 other countries.
This act, often known as the GI Bill, was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22, 1944, and gave payments to veterans of World War II for college education, unemployment insurance, and housing.
While World War II was still being waged, the Department of Labor predicted that 15 million men and women who had served in the military would be unemployed after the war. To prevent widespread unemployment from causing postwar depression, the National Resources Planning Board, a White House department, began studying postwar labor needs in 1942 and recommended a series of education and training initiatives in June 1943.
The fundamental components of what became the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act were created by the American Legion and pushed through Congress. In the spring of 1944, the bill was unanimously passed by both chambers of Congress. It was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22, 1944, just days after the D-day invasion of Normandy.