Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878

Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878

Victor Hugo (1802–1885)

Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878
Victor Hugo & Berne Convention 1878

Hugo was a well-known French novelist who was noted not just for his literary works but also for his pivotal role in rallying support for worldwide author rights protection.

Internationally recognized authors were becoming increasingly worried about unauthorised copying of their works in other countries at the time, but existing bilateral copyright treaties were complex and difficult to enforce. They founded the International Literary Association in Paris in 1878, under Hugo’s guidance.

The committee produced a draft text of an international copyright agreement during its 1883 conference in Berne, which Hugo presided over.They urged the Swiss government to hold an international conference, based on the draft, to establish an international copyright convention. Worldwide discussions proceeded in Berne for the next three years, culminating in the signing of the Berne Convention in 1886, which laid the groundwork for international copyright protection.

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Legal Aid Societies 1876 German immigrants

Legal Aid Societies 1876

Legal Aid Societies 1876
Legal Aid Societies 1876

Edward Salomon (1828–1909), Arthur von Briesen (1843–1920)

The Legal Aid Society is a New York City-based 501(c)(3) non-profit legal aid organization. It is the country’s oldest and largest legal assistance organization, having been established in 1876.

Its lawyers defend clients in criminal and civil proceedings, including class actions. The group is supported by official funds as well as individual donations. It is the city’s principal legal services provider and the top beneficiary of financing from the New York City government among regional legal aid organizations.

In 1876, the Legal Aid Society was established in New York to protect the rights of German immigrants who could not afford to employ an attorney. The organization was able to expand its services and involve people from all walks of life thanks to a major grant from the Rockefeller Family in 1890. The New York Legal Aid Society was founded in 1890, and in 1890, it was called. A board of directors oversees the organization. Richard J. Davis was elected to the board of directors on December 2, 2010.

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Admission of Women to the Bar 1873

Admission of Women to the Bar 1873

Admission of Women to the Bar 1873
Myra Bradwell, c. 1870. – Admission of Women to the Bar 1873

Bradwell v. Illinois, Myra Bradwell (1831–1894)

Myra Bradwell, née Myra Colby, was an American lawyer and editor who was engaged in numerous historic lawsuits addressing women’s legal rights. She was born February 12, 1831 in Manchester, Vermont, and died February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois.

Myra Colby was born in Portage, New York, and raised in Schaumburg Township, Illinois, near Elgin, beginning in 1843. She attended schools in Kenosha, Wisconsin, and Elgin, Illinois. She married James B. Bradwell, a law student, in May 1852 and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with him, where they taught and then ran their own private school. They returned to Illinois in 1854, settling in Chicago, where James Bradwell was admitted to the law in 1855. In 1861, he was elected to the Cook County bench, and in 1873, he was elected to the state assembly.

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Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873

Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873

Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873
The Comstock Act, named after moralist Anthony Comstock who is shown here, banned the circulation
of educational materials related to legal birth control – Obscenity and the Comstock Act 1873

Anthony Comstock (1844–1915), George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950)

Sending “obscene, vulgar, or lascivious,” “immoral,” or “indecent” books over the mail was made criminal by the Comstock Act of 1873. Selling, giving away, or possessing an obscene book, pamphlet, photograph, sketch, or advertisement became a misdemeanour under the law.

Even if prepared by a physician, the legislation’s scope encompassed writings or documents relating to contraception and abortion. Although the act was formally named An Act for the Suppression of Trade in and Circulation of Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use, it lacked a definition of obscenity.

In reaction to the growth of obscene materials in the 1870s, Congress passed the Comstock Act. The leader of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice, Anthony Comstock, had showed members of Congress filthy images and pushed legislators to adopt the bill to prevent juvenile crime and corruption.

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Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872

Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872

Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872
West Publishing was founded in 1872, and in 1896 moved to the West Publishing Company building that still stands at 50 W Kellogg Blvd.Courtesy Thomson Reuters – Law Reporting and Legal Publishing 1872

John Briggs West (1852–1922)

West began working as a salesperson for the D.D. Merrill Book Store in Saint Paul, Minnesota, when he was 18 years old. He was neither a lawyer nor a college graduate. The store carried law books among other things, and West learned about frontier attorneys’ discontent with the quality and availability of legal materials. West started his own company as “John B. West, Publisher and Book Seller” in 1872, reprinting legal treatises, publishing legal forms, and providing a much-appreciated index to Minnesota legislation.

In 1899, he unexpectedly departed the West Publishing Company and founded the Keefe-Davidson Law Book Company, making derogatory remarks about the West key-number digest method in the process. However, his new company lost a significant case within a decade and went out of business. He moved to southern California after retiring.

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The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard

The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard University

The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard
The Law School Revolution 1870 – Harvard – Portrait of Christopher Columbus Langdell by Frederick Porter Vinton, 1892

William Blackstone (1723–1780), Theodore Dwight (1822–1892), Christopher Columbus Langdell (1826–1906)

Harvard Law School (HLS) is Harvard University’s law school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is the oldest continually functioning law school in the United States, as well as one of the most respected in the country, having been founded in 1817.

With only one faculty member, the institution was floundering by 1827. The Dane Professorship of Law was then established by Nathan Dane, a notable graduate of the college, who insisted that it be presented to then-Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. The school was once known as “Dane Law School.” John H. Ashmun, son of Eli Porter Ashmun and brother of George Ashmun, took a post at Harvard in 1829 and closed his Northampton Law School, with many of his pupils joining him.

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Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination

Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination 1869

Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination 1869
Prohibition of Racial Voter Discrimination 1869 -This commemorative print celebrating the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment shows a parade surrounded by images of African Americans enjoying their newly confirmed rights.

In 1870, the United States Constitution was amended to include the 15th Amendment, which intended to safeguard African American men’s voting rights following the Civil War. Despite the amendment, by the late 1870s, discriminatory techniques were being employed to discourage Black Americans, particularly in the South, from exercising their right to vote. Legal impediments at the state and municipal levels were not abolished until the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which made it illegal to deny African Americans their right to vote under the 15th Amendment.

What Is the 15th Amendment?

“The right of citizens of the United Declares to vote shall not be denied or restricted by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or prior condition of servitude,” the 15th Amendment states.

Despite the enactment of the amendment, by the late 1870s, discriminatory techniques were being employed to prohibit Black residents, particularly in the South, from exercising their right to vote. Legal impediments at the state and municipal levels were not illegal until the Voting Rights Act of 1965 if they deprived African Americans their ability to vote under the 15th Amendment.”

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