The Fourteenth Amendment 1868

The Fourteenth Amendment 1868

The Fourteenth Amendment 1868
The Fourteenth Amendment 1868 – Jacob M. Howard, the Michigan senator who authored the citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that reversed a portion of the U.S. Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision.

The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1868, and it granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War, with the phrase “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” encompassing them.

Overall, there are five components to the amendment, four of which originated as distinct bills in 1866 that stagnated in the legislative process before being merged, along with a fifth enforcement element, into a single amendment.

This so-called Reconstruction Amendment made it illegal for states to deprive anybody of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” or to deny anyone within their jurisdiction equal legal protection. The section of the Constitution allocating representation in the House of Representatives based on a formula that counted each slave as three-fifths of a person was repealed by the Thirteenth Amendment, which was replaced by a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment requiring that representatives be “apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the entire number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.”

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Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868

Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868

Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868
Impeaching President Andrew Johnson 1868 – President Andrew Johnson as painted by Washington Bogart Cooper (1802–1888).

Andrew Johnson (1808–1875)

The United States House of Representatives votes on 11 articles of impeachment against President Andrew Johnson, with nine of them citing Johnson’s dismissal of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, which violated the Tenure of Office Act. President Lyndon B. Johnson became the first president in US history to be impeached after the House vote.

Andrew Johnson, a senator from Tennessee, was the only U.S. senator from a seceding state who stayed loyal to the Union at the commencement of the Civil War in 1861. He was appointed military governor of Tennessee by President Abraham Lincoln in 1862, and he was elected vice president of the United States in 1864.

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The Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act of 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 South Carolina congressman Robert B. Elliott delivering his famous speech in favor of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in the House of Representatives on January 6, 1874.

Lyman Trumbull (1813–1896), Andrew Johnson (1808–1875)

“Without difference of race or color, or previous state of slavery or involuntary servitude,” the Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all people born in the United States to be citizens. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill, the 39th United States Congress overrode his veto, and the bill became law. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first civil rights statute in the United States.

Background

Following Abraham Lincoln’s assassination in April 1865, President Andrew Johnson took a moderate approach to Reconstruction in the aftermath of the Civil War. Former Confederate states were expected to preserve abolition, vow devotion to the United States, and pay their war debts in order to re-enter the Union.

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The Abolition of Slavery 1865 – Amendment

The Abolition of Slavery 1865 – Amendment

The Abolition of Slavery 1865 - Amendment
The Abolition of Slavery 1865 – Amendment – Building on the Emancipation Proclamation, the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution fully prohibited the institution of slavery.

The 13th Amendment is legally accepted into the United States Constitution after being ratified by three-quarters of the states earlier in the month. It ensures that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude… shall exist within the United States, or any area subject to their authority.”

Before the American Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and other anti-slavery Republican Party leaders wanted to halt slavery from spreading into new territories and states in the American West, not abolish it. Most Southern leaders objected to this program, believing that the emergence of free states would irreversibly tilt the US power structure against them.

The election of Abraham Lincoln as president in November 1860 precipitated the secession of seven Southern states and the foundation of the Confederate States of America. The Civil War broke out shortly after his inauguration in 1861. Four additional slave states in the upper South joined the Confederacy, while four border slave states remained in the Union.

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The Geneva Convention 1864, Henry Dunant

The Geneva Convention 1864

The Geneva Convention 1864
The Geneva Convention 1864

Jean-Henri Dunant (1828–1910)

The Geneva Convention was a series of international diplomatic meetings that resulted in a number of agreements, including the Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflicts, a set of international laws that govern the treatment of wounded or captured military personnel, medical personnel, and non-military civilians during wars and armed conflicts. The agreements were first signed in 1864 and extensively modified after World War II in 1949.

Dunant, Henry

The basic principles of battle were hit-or-miss for much of humanity’s history, assuming they existed at all. While some civilizations showed sympathy for the ill, helpless, or innocent populations, others tortured or slaughtered anybody who came into contact with them, with no questions asked.

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The Emancipation Proclamation 1863

The Emancipation Proclamation 1863

The Emancipation Proclamation 1863
The Emancipation Proclamation – An 1890 lithograph depicting the historic proclamation.

On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, as the country entered its third year of deadly civil war. “All people kept as slaves” within the insurgent states “are, and henceforth shall be free,” the declaration said.

Despite its broad language, the Emancipation Proclamation had significant limitations. It only applied to states that had seceded from the US, leaving slavery in the loyal border states unaffected. It also specifically omitted areas of the Confederacy (the Southern separatist states) that had already been taken over by the North. Above all, the independence it guaranteed was contingent on Union (US) military success.

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The Government Printing Office 1861

The Government Printing Office 1861

The Government Printing Office 1861
The Government Printing Office typesetting room, c. 1910.

Joint Resolution No. 25, James Buchanan (1791–1868)

The United States Government Printing Office (GPO) was established by Congress in June 1860 and commenced operations on March 4, 1861, with 350 workers. Since its establishment, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol and H Streets, and it has continued to use the most efficient and cost-effective manufacturing processes to deliver genuine and secure government papers and goods to the American people.

On June 23, 1860, President James Buchanan signed Joint Resolution No. 25 authorizing the establishment of the GPO. On the same day that President Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated, the agency opened its doors on March 4, 1861.

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