The Code of Hammurabi – c. 1792 BCE

The Code of Hammurabi – The Oldest Complete Law Collection

The Code of Hammurabi
The Code of Hammurabi

Hammurabi (c.1810–c.1750), Gustave Jéquier (1868–1946)

Although identifying mankind’s genuine first legal code may be impossible, legal scholars and historians point to the Code of Hammurabi as one of the oldest and most complete written collections of rules in existence.

A French archaeological team excavated the acropolis at Susa, a city in the ancient Elam empire now known as Shush in Iran’s Khuzestan region, between December 1901 and January 1902. Gustave Jéquier, one of the guys, unearthed a seven-foot-high piece of black diorite.

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The Code of Ur Nammu (c. 2112 − 2095 BCE)

This is the brief history of The Code of Ur Nammu.

The Code of Ur-Nammu
The Code of Ur-Nammu

The earliest known civilisation arose in Mesopotamia, which today encompasses Iraq, Syria, and southeastern Turkey. The Akkadian Empire, ruled by King Sargon, arose initially, around 2350 BCE. King Ur-Nammu then unified the Sumerians and Akkadians, establishing the Third Dynasty of Ur, which ruled until around 2004 BCE.

Ur-Nammu’s most important legacy is the Code of Ur-Nammu, which influenced the codes of two subsequent kings, Lipit-Ishtar (c. 1930 BCE) and Hammurabi (c. 1792 BCE), as well as the Code of Eshnunna, a city in northern Mesopotamia, according to Klaas Veenhof, an eminent scholar of Babylonia and Assyria (c. 1800 BCE).

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The Oldest Written Will – Flinders Petrie 1889

This is the very brief history of the Oldest Written Will – the Oldest Written testament.

A 1934 portrait, by Hungarian artist Philip Alexius de László, of Sir Flinders Petrie, who discovered the papyrus bearing the oldest known written will.
A 1934 portrait, by Hungarian artist Philip Alexius de László, of Sir Flinders Petrie, who discovered the papyrus bearing the oldest known written will.

The discovery of the oldest known will was reported in the London Standard on December 26, 1889. The papyrus was discovered in the ancient Egyptian town of Kahun, which is now Al-Fayym, some sixty miles south of Cairo, by Flinders Petrie, a prominent English archaeologist and Egyptologist who is widely considered as the father of modern archaeology. According to the London Standard writer, the revelation “curiously underscores the continuity of legal techniques.”

Prior to Petrie’s discoveries, historians and legal scholars had only studied the existence and evolution of ancient wills through later stages of civilization: discussions of Solon introducing wills to Ancient Greece in the sixth century BCE, Roman law relating to wills appearing in the Twelve Tables of the fifth century BCE, and the Justinian Code in the mid-sixth century of our own era.

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