Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) On the Law of War and Peace 1625
Continuous advancements in technology, communication, and transportation continue to draw the world’s nations and peoples closer together, emphasizing the importance of a functioning international legal system. The first foundations of international law appeared immediately after the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, but official doctrines and theories did not arise until the early to mid-seventeenth century, following the devastation of the Thirty Years’ War.
Mark Twain is believed to have never allowed his schooling get in the way of his education. However, as countries have progressed, they have realized the critical value of formal education and have enacted laws to ensure that it is provided.
With the School Establishment Act of 1616, Scotland became the first country to introduce comprehensive compulsory education. A previous Education Legislation of 1496 required all sons of nobles and freeholders of means to attend grammar schools, but the 1616 act required every parish to construct a publicly funded, Church-supervised school, with the goal of promoting Protestantism and eradicating Scottish Gaelic. However, until the Education Acts of 1633 and 1646, which allowed bishops to tax landowners to support schools, the act had limited effectiveness.
Although the legislation does not establish a distinction between rich and poor, it does provide provisions for the poor in some cases, indicating that the state recognizes its responsibility to provide for the welfare of its citizens. That recognition is usually the result of religious custom or indoctrination, if it isn’t the result of intrinsic benevolence. In England, the Church primarily provided for the impoverished, mainly through monasteries and parish priests, until the end of the sixteenth century. Parishioners’ kindness and tithes provided the required funds.
In 1535, Parliament established a law condemning vagabonds and beggars, and the following year, Henry VIII began his infamous Dissolution of the Monasteries, which drastically reduced parochial finances and resulted in a major rise in poverty.
Les Termes de la Ley 1527
John Rastell (c. 1475–1536)
You may need a dictionary to grasp the meaning of an unknown word while reading this book. People can use dictionaries to improve their understanding of a language or a certain subject, and hence their capacity to comprehend concepts and ideas. Today, we take that skill for granted. Consider a world without dictionaries: where would a reader go to learn the meanings of words they’d never heard before?
Expositiones Terminorum Legum Anglorum, afterwards known as Les Termes de la Ley, was originally published in England in 1527 by John Rastell, an English lawyer and author. The dictionary had 208 entries, which were laid down alphabetically in parallel columns, one in Latin and the other in Anglo-Norman Law French. In 1530, a second edition was published with English translations.
Today, Ferdinand and Isabella are best remembered for commissioning Christopher Columbus to search for a western trade route to the Orient. On August 3, 1492, the Genovese mariner set sail from Spain, but his royal backers had issued the Edict of Expulsion, often known as the Alhambra Decree, demanding “all Jews and Jewesses of whatever age they may be” to either accept baptism and conversion to Christianity or leave the nation.
Throughout the fifteenth century, a fresh wave of anti-Semitism had been simmering. Many Spanish Jews converted to Christianity in order to evade persecution and participate in forbidden activities. The Conversos did well in business and in universities as a group, but their success fostered resentment and fury.
International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject.
It has long been established as a leading authority in the field, offering an unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour, ensuring understanding and analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Explaining the leading rules, practice and caselaw, this treatise retains and develops the detailed referencing which encourages and assists the reader in further study. This new edition has been fully updated to reflect recent developments.
In particular, it has expanded the treatment of space law and of international economic law, and introduced new sections on cyber operations and cyber warfare, as well as reflecting the Covid-19 crisis.
Must watch movie for law students – Bridge of Spies film (2015) – This film was based on true story.
New York lawyer James Donovan, his client Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, and American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers were the key players in a Cold War historical drama.
The Soviet Union arrests US pilot Francis Gary Powers after shooting down his U-2 espionage plane during the Cold War.When Powers is sentenced to ten years in jail, a CIA officer recruits New York lawyer James Donovan (Tom Hanks) to negotiate his release. Donovan boards a flight to Berlin in the hopes of securing the young man’s release through a prisoner swap. If all goes according to plan, the Russians will capture Rudolf Abel (Mark Rylance), the convicted spy whom Donovan represented in court.