New Apple MacBook Pros with M1 Pro and M1 Max chips

Apple introduced new MacBook Pro notebooks with 14′ (inch – approx. 35 cm) and 16′ (inch – approx. 40 cm) with specially designed chips M1 Pro and M1 Max – as the most powerful chips Apple has ever built. The power of new notebooks is huge and will make the lives of professional creators easier.

Apple MacBook Pro M1 Pro and M1 Max
Apple MacBook Pro M1 Pro and M1 Max

Powering the all-new MacBook Pro, new chips feature up to a 10-core CPU, 32-core GPU, 64GB of unified memory, ProRes acceleration, and industry-leading power efficiency.

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Thomas de Littleton Tenures 1481

Littleton Tenures 1481 – Treatise on Tenures – The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England

Thomas de Littleton (c.1422–1481)

Thomas de Littleton Tenures - Sir Thomas de Littleton authored the first legal textbook, Treatise on Tenures.
Thomas de Littleton Tenures – Sir Thomas de Littleton authored the first legal textbook, Treatise on Tenures.

In the mid-fifteenth century, the printing press ushered in revolutionary transformations in many elements of European culture and society.

The ability to communicate written content, ranging from one-page pamphlets to multivolume volumes, all teeming with knowledge to be spread and gained, lay the foundation for numerous profound breakthroughs that accumulated over the years.

Those revolutionary developments were felt in the legal field as well, albeit there was some initial resistance to textbooks.Long before the printing machine, two of England’s most illustrious jurists penned important legal documents.

The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England, written by Ranulf de Glanville, chief justiciar during Henry II’s reign, was the first text on English law.

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The Joan of Arc Trial 1431

The Joan of Arc Trial 1431

The Trial of Joan of Arc
The Trial of Joan of Arc – Later canonized by the Catholic Church, Joan of Arc—depicted in this 1898 painting from the side altar in the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, Belgium—is one of the best-known victims of religious persecution.

Jeanne d’Arc (1412–1431), Pierre Cauchon (1371–1442), Callixtus III (1378–1458)
Jeanne d’Arc claimed to have received visions of saints when she was twelve years old, encouraging her to help put an end to the horrific Hundred Years’ War that had already been raging for decades between Plantagenet England and Valois France for hereditary control of the latter realm. She began campaigning for a military position when she was sixteen years old. Her leadership on the battlefield is unknown in the historical record, but her dramatic presence helped the French turn the tide of the fight in their favor.

Despite this, a succession of military setbacks led to her capture and trial for heresy in Rouen, France, by an English-supported church led by Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais. Because of her male traits and defiant refusal to answer inquiries, church investigators suspected Joan of being a witch or sorceress during her trial. Despite the lack of evidence, Joan’s brief recollections of her visions and her aversion to wearing women’s clothing — most likely to prevent being raped in prison — were enough to persuade Church officials that she had an immoral nature.

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The Court of Star Chamber

The brief history of The Court of Star Chamber.

The Court of Star Chamber
The Court of Star Chamber

“To name a case a ‘Star Chamber proceeding’ now is a dreadful insult—an accusation of severe procedural injustice and misuse of power,” writes legal expert Elizabeth G. Thornburg. However, the true narrative of the Court of Star Chamber is far more convoluted.” Historians date the Court of Star Chamber’s origins to the latter part of the fourteenth century, and attribute its name to the chamber’s ceiling, which is ornamented in the medieval style with gold-painted stars, according to one idea.

The Court of Star Chamber arose as an outgrowth of the King’s Council, through which individuals may seek legal assistance not available in current courts, allowing the poor to pursue claims against the wealthy.

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The Statutes of Westminster 1275 – England

The Statutes of Westminster The Palace of Westminster 1275

Edward I (1239–1307)

The Statutes of Westminster The Palace of Westminster
The Statutes of Westminster The Palace of Westminster

We now use the term statute to refer to an act or, as Black’s Legislation Dictionary defines it, “a law passed by a legislative body.” However, as English historians H. G. Richardson and George Sayles demonstrate, that term was not widely used until the late fourteenth century. Enactments were previously referred to as provisions or établissements.

King Edward I convened his first parliament at Westminster in 1275, shortly after returning from the Ninth Crusade and ascending to the throne, and produced the first Statute of Westminster, with fifty-one clauses in Anglo-Norman (Old French) covering a wide range of substantive legal areas as well as the administration of justice. Because it offered common rights to all and free elections, English historian William Stubbs dubbed the act “nearly a code by itself” in 1877. Law historian George Crabb commended Edward I’s work at the time, naming him “the English Justinian.”

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Magna Carta Great Charter – 1215 King Henry I

The Magna Carta 1215 – King Henry I of England

The Magna Carta ("great charter")
The Magna Carta (“great charter”)

When King Henry I of England ascended to the throne in 1100, he issued (and then largely ignored) the Charter of Liberties, or Coronation Charter, which redressed abuses of power by his brother William II by establishing royal directives regarding barons of the realm and church offices, among other things.

A century later, Henry’s great-grandson John had lost the majority of his French holdings, as well as a large sum of money, in an attempt to reclaim them. He taxed the barons in 1214 to fund an ultimately futile military campaign in France. The following year, a number of lords revolted, enraged by John’s frequent abuses of feudal and common law. The king agreed to sign The Magna Carta (“great charter”) at Runnymede, between Windsor and the rebels’ camp at Staines.

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Lex Mercatoria c. 1200 Norms and Practices

Lex Mercatoria Commercial Norms and Practices

Lex Mercatoria Merchant
Lex Mercatoria Merchant

Trade expanded and commerce flourished in the thirteenth century as the Renaissance swept from southern Europe. Merchants created an informal set of rules based on their own commercial norms and practices as their firm grew. These laws, known as the lex mercatoria, or merchant law, established the standard for settling commercial disputes in merchant courts that emerged along key trade routes. Uniform rules minimized uncertainty among international merchants conducting business in the area, which was one of its main benefits.

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