Colonialism and Postwar Independence 1947
Between 1945 and 1960, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa gained autonomy or complete independence from European colonists.
British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan Helps Start Decolonisation
There was no decolonisation process. In some areas it was peaceful and orderly. In many other regions, independence was achieved only after a protracted revolution. Some new and independent countries received a stable government almost immediately. Others have been dominated by dictators and juntas for decades, or have experienced long-term civil wars. Some European governments have welcomed new relationships with former colonies. Others fought militarily against decolonisation. The process of decolonisation was in line with the new Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States and the early development of the new United Nations. Decolonisation was often influenced by the competition of superpowers and had a clear impact on the development of that competition. It has also changed the pattern of international affairs more generally.