The Fourteenth Amendment 1868
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1868, and it granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War, with the phrase “all persons born or naturalized in the United States” encompassing them.
Overall, there are five components to the amendment, four of which originated as distinct bills in 1866 that stagnated in the legislative process before being merged, along with a fifth enforcement element, into a single amendment.
This so-called Reconstruction Amendment made it illegal for states to deprive anybody of “life, liberty, or property without due process of law” or to deny anyone within their jurisdiction equal legal protection. The section of the Constitution allocating representation in the House of Representatives based on a formula that counted each slave as three-fifths of a person was repealed by the Thirteenth Amendment, which was replaced by a clause in the Fourteenth Amendment requiring that representatives be “apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the entire number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed.”