The Nuremberg Trials Germany 1945
The Nürnberg trials, commonly known as the Nuremberg trials, were a series of war crimes proceedings held at Nürnberg, Germany, in 1945–46. Former Nazi officials were accused and tried as war criminals by the International Military Tribunal. The four counts in the indictment were: (1) crimes against peace (i.e., planning, initiating, and waging wars of aggression in violation of international treaties and agreements), (2) crimes against humanity (i.e., exterminations, deportations, and genocide), (3) war crimes (i.e., violations of the laws of war), and (4) “a common plan or conspiracy to commit” the crimes listed in the first three counts.
The London Agreement on August 8, 1945 gave the International Military Tribunal the authority to conduct these cases. On that date, representatives from the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France’s provisional government signed an agreement that included a charter for an international military tribunal to try major Axis war criminals whose crimes were not limited to a specific geographic location. The contents of this agreement were later ratified by 19 other countries.